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Thread: New To Wrestling? Learn the Basics of the Sport!

  1. #1

    Default New To Wrestling? Learn the Basics of the Sport!

    <object classid="clsid<img src=" http:="""" images="" smilies="" biggrin.gif="" alt="" title="Big Grin" smilieid="3" class="inlineimg" border="0">Wrestling Rules & Information for the New Wrestling Fan

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  2. #2

    Default Re: New To Wrestling? Learn the Basics of the Sport!


    For men's wrestling at the 2008 Games, there are seven weight classes in freestyle and seven in Greco-Roman. For women's freestyle wrestling, there are four weight classes. In wrestling, there is no "unlimited" weight class. Boxing terms such as flyweight, welterweight and super heavyweight are no longer used in wrestling, although competitors in the 120kg (264.5 lbs) division are often referred to as heavyweights.

    The Beijing Olympic wrestling tournament begins on Aug. 12, Day 4 of the Games, and concludes on August 21, Day 13 of the Games.

    Weight classes

    In both freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling, the seven classes are as follows (numbers reflect maximum weights; pound conversions are unofficial):

    • 55kg (121 lbs)
    • 60kg (132 lbs)
    • 66kg (145.5 lbs)
    • 74kg (163 lbs)
    • 84kg (185 lbs)
    • 96kg (211.5 lbs)
    • 120kg (264.5 lbs)


    The four classes are as follows (numbers reflect maximum weights; pound conversions are unofficial):

    • 48kg (105.5 lbs)
    • 55kg (121 lbs)
    • 63kg (138.5 lbs)
    • 72kg (158.5 lbs)

    Greco-Roman vs. freestyle

    There are two styles of Olympic wrestling, though the rules for both are virtually identical. The chief difference is that in Greco-Roman, a wrestler may not attack his opponent below the waist, nor use his own legs to trip, lift or execute other holds. In freestyle, both the arms and legs are used to execute holds.

  3. #3

    Default Re: New To Wrestling? Learn the Basics of the Sport!


    Olympic wrestling matches consist of three periods of two minutes each with a 30-second break in between. Athletes must win two of the three periods to capture a match, similar to tennis and its "sets". The total score does not matter. The match format is a change from the 2004 Games in Athens, when wrestlers competed two periods of three minutes each, with a 30-second break in between.

    Classification points
    Classification points are credited at the end of each match in the tournament and serve as the primary tool for ranking wrestlers at the end of the tournament. Classification points are different than technical points, which are the actual points that wrestlers score during the matches themselves with takedowns, reversals, exposures, etc.

    Throwing your opponent in wrestling is rewarded with more technical points.

    The following lists the number of classification points a wrestler could receive:

    Victory by fall (pin)
    • Winner: 5
    • Loser: 0

    Technical superiority (loser scores no points)
    • Winner: 4
    • Loser: 0*

    Technical superiority (loser scores at least one point)
    • Winner: 4
    • Loser: 1*

    • Winner: 5
    • Loser: 0

    • Winner: 5
    • Loser: 0#

    • Winner: 5
    • Loser: 0#

    Disqualification (Misconduct or fourth caution)
    • Winner: 5
    • Loser: 0

    Victory on points (loser scores no points)
    • Winner: 3
    • Loser: 0

    Victory on points (loser scroes at least one point)
    • Winner: 3
    • Loser: 1

    Double disqualification
    • No points for either wrestler

    *Technical superiority -- often called a "technical fall" -- occurs when one wrestler has gained in one period a 6 points difference, a 5-point hold or 2 holds worth 3points. To win a match by technical superiority, the same wrestler must win two periods by technical fall.

    # A wrestler who forfeits a match -- or does not appear at the match at the announced time -- is disqualified from the tournament and cannot be awarded a medal or final place.

    Technical points
    In Olympic wrestling matches, technical points are awarded as follows:

    1 Point
    • For taking the opponent down -- three support points of the defensive wrestler must be touching the mat (two arms or hands and one knee, or two knees and one arm or hand).
    • For applying a correct hold and maneuver while standing on the mat or in the par terre position. (Does not put the opponent in danger.)
    • For reversal of control, when the wrestler underneath comes out on top.
    • For turning the opponent toward his or her back, his or her weight supported by one arm or both, but neither his or her head nor a shoulder or elbow touching the mat.
    • For the wrestler who is prevented from completing a hold because his opponent is
    • maintaining an irregular hold, but who finally succeeds in completing the hold.
    • For holding an opponent in a position of danger for at least five seconds.
    • For taking a hold and driving an opponent out of bounds while attempting a takedown. If the opponent is considered to be "fleeing the mat," this situation also results in a caution and a point is awarded.
    • The penalty for fleeing the mat, executing an illegal hold, refusing to start, or commiting an act of brutality.
    • The penalty for stopping the match for injury without bleeding.

    2 Points
    • For exposing the opponent's back -- the danger position -- when the wrestlers are in par terre. The back is considered exposed when it is forced past 90 degrees.
    • For a throw to the mat from the standing position, when the defensive wrestler lands on his or her buttocks or side on impact, then is forced over into the danger position.
    • For a counter that stops the opponent's throw and results in a takedown directly into the danger position.
    • The penalty for an illegal hold, which keeps the opponent from scoring.
    • The penalty for an illegal hold used to keep from being pinned.

    3 Points
    • For a "high amplitude" lift and throw from a standing position or from a lift from par terre which does not take the opponent to his or her back.
    • For any hold applied from the standing position that takes an opponent to an immediate danger position on the mat, without meeting the criteria for high amplitude.

    5 Points
    • For a high amplitude throw from the standing position or from a lift from par terre that places an opponent in an immediate danger position. The throw must be a high, sweeping action that exposes the opponent's back to the mat. The high amplitude throw is the most spectacular maneuver in wrestling.

    If at the end of a period the two wrestlers are tied, the winner is determined by the following criteria (in order):

    • Fewest amount of cautions
    • Higher value of holds
    • Last scored technical point

    In freestyle wrestling (men's and women's), if two wrestlers are tied 0-0 at the end of a period, the athletes will be put in an single-leg hold position to start an extra time period, which lasts until a point is scored or a maximum of 30 seconds. A drawing of lots (usually a coin toss) determines which wrestler gets the advantage in the hold position. If after the 30 seconds the wrestler with the advantage has not scored any points, his opponent will receive one technical point and be declared the winner of the period.

    In Greco-Roman wrestling, a scoreless tie is not possible because each wrestler gets a chance to start in a reverse lock position in each period. If that lock position is broken, a point will be awarded. If that lock position is not broken within the 30 seconds, the top wrestler will be penalized by a caution and one point is awarded to his opponent. But if the wrestlers are tied in points after the first minute of a period, a drawing of lots determines which wrestler gets to take the lock position first, which is advantageous. Otherwise, the leader of the match at that point would assume the lock position first.

    During the course of a match, every decision by the referee that relates to points and cautions must be confirmed by either the judge or mat chairman, who sit on opposite sides of the mat from each other. A referee may rule one way, but nothing occurs unless the judge or mat chairman agrees; two of the three officials must agree on any judgment. If there is a disputed call, or the officials are unsure of how the action transpired, they may use video review located next to the mat. After reviewing the sequence of events, the officials discuss the situation and make a ruling based solely on what they saw in the video.

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    In Olympic wrestling, competitors wear a one-piece singlet of the color assigned to them -- red or blue. The singlet must adhere to the body, covering it from mid-thigh.

    Light kneepads are permitted, but ear guards and headgear are forbidden. Men's wrestlers must be closely shaved or have a beard of several weeks growth. They also must carry handkerchiefs, normally tucked into their jockstraps. This rule dates back to when handkerchiefs were needed to wipe away blood, saliva and nasal discharge, all things now handled by doctors with antiseptic sprays.

    It is also forbidden:

    • To wear bandages on the wrists, arms or ankles, except in case of an injury or by a doctor's prescription.
    • To wear rings, bracelets, earrings, or hair slides.
    • To arrive on the mat perspiring (the referee checks both wrestlers for moisture at the start of the match and sometimes sends them back to be dried off).
    • To apply a greasy or sticky substance to the body.

    The wrestling shoe must close firmly around the ankle, and may not have heels, nailed soles, buckles or any metallic parts. Shoelaces must be taped.

  5. #5

    Default Re: New To Wrestling? Learn the Basics of the Sport!


    When a wrestler disrupts a match (fleeing the mat, fleeing a hold, refusal to start, illegal hold, etc.), the referee may decide to issue that wrestler a caution. The referee also must then award one or two points (depending on the severity of the infraction) to the opponent. A wrestler receiving 3 cautions in a match is disqualified.

    Chef de Tapis
    The mat chairman and one of three officials in a match. The mat chairman breaks a tie vote between the referee and judge.

    Classification points
    These are credited at the end of a bout to determine a wrestler's final classification or ranking. They are different than technical points, which are what wrestlers score during a match.

    When the referee orders a wrestler to place both hands on the back of his or her opponent, who is underneath on the ground. Wrestlers in the standing position must assume body-to-body contact.

    A move in which a wrestler places one arm around his or her opponent's neck, the other around the back of the opponent's knee, then locks his or her hands together to draw the knee toward the opponent's face.

    Crotch lift
    When a wrestler wraps his or her arms around his or her opponent's upper thigh and lifts.

    When the referee encourages wrestlers to be more active.

    When a wrestler slips his or her head under their opponent's arm and comes up behind in preparation for a takedown.

    When the wrestler on the bottom manages to get to his or her feet and face their opponent.

    When a wrestler turns his or her opponent's shoulders to the mat.

    Called when both shoulders of the defensive wrestler are held against the mat for the length of time it takes the referee to pronounce the word "tombe," about half a second. Also called a pin. This ends the match.


    Federation Internationale des Luttes Associees, the international governing body of wrestling.

    Fireman's carry
    A takedown in which a wrestler is brought across his or her opponent's shoulders.

    The style of wrestling in which competitors may use both arms and legs to execute holds.

    Grand amplitude throw
    Any action or hold by a wrestler in the standing position when it causes his/her opponent to lose all contact with the ground, controls him, moves him in a broadly sweeping curve in the air, and brings him to the ground in a direct and immediate danger position; or in the "par terre" position, any complete lift from the ground executed by the attacking wrestler, whether the attacked wrestler lands belly down (three points) or in a danger position (five points).

    The style of wrestling in which a competitor may not attack his opponent below the waist nor use his own legs to trip, lift or execute other holds.

    Gut wrench
    When a wrestler wraps his or her arms around his or her opponent's midsection from behind and attempts to lift or flip him or her.

    Half nelson
    When a wrestler passes his or her arm under his or her opponent's armpit from behind and places the palm of his or her hand against the back of the head.

    Head up
    The order given by the referee in the case of passivity and/or repeated attacks by a wrestler who thrusts his or her head forward.

    French for "leg," this is called when a Greco-Roman wrestler illegally uses his legs.

    Par terre
    Loosely translated from French as "on the ground." It is the position the wrestlers assume when passivity is called against one of the competitors. The passive wrestler usually assumes the "down" position, face down below the active wrestler.

    When a wrestler does not attempt or execute any holds or is satisfied just to neutralize his opponent's efforts.

    Called when both shoulders of the defensive wrestler are held against the mat for the length of time it takes the referee to pronounce the word "tomb?," about half a second. Also called a fall. This ends the match.

    When the wrestler on the bottom reverses positions with the wrestler on top and seizes control.

    A tight, form-fitting jersey or bodysuit worn by wrestlers and other athletes.

    When a wrestler takes his or her opponent to the mat from a standing position.

    Technical fall
    Also called technical superiority. It occurs when one wrestler has gained a 6-point lead in a period, a wrestler has scored two holds of 3 points, or a wrestler has scored one hold of 5 points. At that point, the period ends. To win a match by technical superiority, the winner would need to win two periods with technical falls.

    Technical points
    Points awarded to wrestlers during a match after they perform certain attacking moves. The athlete with the most technical points in a period wins that period.

    French for "fallen," referees use this word to announce a pin or a fall.

    Refers to the passivity zone. The word must be spoken aloud if the competitors enter the passivity zone.

  6. #6

    Default Re: New To Wrestling? Learn the Basics of the Sport!

    History of Olympic Wrestling

    Athens, 1896:
    With roots in ancient Greece, wrestling, not surprisingly, is featured on the program for the first modern Games in Athens. Only one event -- with no weight limit -- was contested, and the winner was 5-foot-4 German Carl Schuhmann, a triple gold medalist in gymnastics. The official report described one of Schuhmann's wins as follows: "This contest was a very short one, for the strongly built German, grasping the handsome English-man, who was fully a head taller than he, stoutly round the waist, threw him on the ground in the twinkling of an eye."

    St. Louis, 1904: In 1904, the first modern Olympics held on U.S. soil featured seven freestyle wrestling divisions, and no international participants. As a result, Americans claimed every medal awarded: seven gold and 21 overall. Winners included two members of the Brooklyn-based Norwegian Turnverein: Charles Erickson and Bernuff Hansen.

    IOC/Olympic Museum collections
    Before time limits were imposed, Martin Klein (right) and Alfred Asikainen competed outdoors for 11 hours in 1912.

    Stockholm, 1912: In a semifinal match in Greco-Roman's 75kg (165.5 lbs) division, Martin Klein, an Estonian representing Russia, and Finland's Alfred Asikainen grappled in the hot sun for 11 hours -- pausing briefly every 30 minutes to refresh -- before Klein finally won by pin. Too exhausted to contest the final, Klein took silver. Stockholm's official report attributed the wrestlers' endurance and desire to "the prospect of winning an Olympic gold medal," but also conceded that, "some alteration must be made in the rules, in order to provide against a repetition of such lengthy contests which are altogether too wearying for the public." Time limits are first imposed on Olympic wrestling matches in 1924.

    Antwerp, 1920: Competing in Greco-Roman's 60kg (132.5 lbs) division, Finland's Oskar Friman never needed more than eight minutes to pin any of his four opponents, including countryman Haikki Kahkonen in the final. Friman's gold was among the 57 medals Finland had won in Greco-Roman wrestling through the 2000 Olympics, good for second on that discipline's all-time chart.

    Paris, 1924: Finland's Kaarlo "Kalle" Antilla won freestyle gold at the 1920 Antwerp Games. In Paris, at age 36, he added a second Olympic title with victory in Greco-Roman's 60kg (132.5 lbs) division, giving Finland its third straight winner in that class.

    Los Angeles, 1932: In a noteworthy display of versatility -- and dieting -- Swedish policeman Ivar Johansson captured a freestyle gold medal, then fasted and hit the sauna to shed 10-plus pounds so he could enter Greco-Roman's 72kg (158.5 lbs) division, which he also won. Compatriot Carl Westergren claimed his third Greco-Roman title -- each at a different weight.

    Berlin, 1936: Four years after Sweden's Ivar Johansson became the first wrestler to win Olympic gold in both wrestling disciplines at the same Games, Estonia's Kritjan Palusalu duplicated the feat. Palusalu, 27, claimed his titles in the freestyle and Greco-Roman unlimited weight classes. He and Johansson -- who added a third career gold in Berlin -- remain the only two wrestlers to achieve the single-Games double.

    London, 1948: The Turkish government rewarded Gazanfer Bilge with a house and 20,000 Turkish lira -- approximately $7,000 -- for winning gold in the freestyle 62kg (136.5 lbs) division in London. Accepting the prize cost Bilge his Olympic eligibility for 1952, but allowed him to develop a lucrative career in the bus industry.

    AFP/AFP/Getty Images
    Four years after his brother, Ben, won gold, John Peterson won gold himself in 1976.

    London, 1948: Miklos Szilvasi was a Hungarian policeman who was accidentally shot in the leg while on duty in 1946. As a result, his left foot was temporarily paralyzed. But through stringent rehabilitation, he was ready to wrestle by the 1948 London Games. There, in Greco-Roman's 73kg (160 lbs) final, he lost by decision to Sweden's Gosta Andersson. Four years later in Helsinki, the rivals again met in the gold-medal match, with Szilvasi winning by a 2-1 decision.

    Helsinki, 1952: In addition to being a wrestler, 37-year-old Estonia native Johannes Kotkas was a former Soviet national champion in the hammer throw. In Helsinki, he marched to the Greco-Roman heavyweight title, needing just 13 minutes, 34 seconds in total to pin all four of his opponents.

    Helsinki, 1952: Shohachi Ishii won the freestyle 57kg (125.5 lbs) division, becoming Japan's first post-war Olympic champion, and giving his nation the first of its now 22 gold medals in Olympic wrestling (through 2004). A talented judoka prior to World War II, Ishii turned to wrestling when U.S. occupation forces banned judo.

    Melbourne, 1956: Born in 1930 into a poor family in Tehran, Gholam Reza Takhti left home at an early age to become an oil worker. Later, while in the army, he was introduced to wrestling. An eventual four-time Olympian, Takhti captured his lone gold medal at the 1956 Games. Wildly popular in his homeland, Takhti reportedly held an anti-government stance that threatened then-Shah Reza Pahlavi, so while his mysterious death in January 1968 was officially labeled suicide, many suspected Iran's secret police, the SAVAK, was responsible.

    Rome, 1960: A match in Greco-Roman's 67kg (147.5 lbs) class between the Soviet Union's Avtandil Koridze and Bulgaria's Dimiter Yanchev prompted suspicions of a "fix." To force a final bout with leader Branislav Martinovic of Yugoslavia, Koridze had to score a fall; any other result, and the Yugoslav got gold. With one minute left, Kordize whispered something to his Bulgarian opponent and proceeded to throw him down, scoring the needed fall. Yugoslavia immediately protested, and though Yanchev was disqualified, Koridze was allowed to advance. He then defeated Martinovic for gold.

    Tokyo, 1964: Tokyo native Yojiro Uetake was a national champion high school wrestler in Japan, before he attended college at Oklahoma State University. Midway through his sophomore year, Uetake, commonly known as "Yo-Jo," returned to Japan for the 1964 Games and won gold in freestyle's 57kg (125.5lbs) division. He returned to Oklahoma State and completed his collegiate career with three NCAA titles and an undefeated (58-0) record. With successful defense of his title at the 1968 Games in Mexico City, Uetake became the first Japanese wrestler ever to win two Olympic gold medals.

    Mexico City, 1968: With a bronze in freestyle's unlimited weight class, Germany's Wilfried Dietrich became the first -- and still only -- wrestler to own five Olympic medals. Frenchman Daniel Robin nearly became just the third wrestler to claim two titles at one Games when he finished runner-up at 78kg (172 lbs) in both freestyle and Greco-Roman.

    Billy Stickland/ALLSPORT
    In 2000, Rulon Gardner's "Miracle on the Mat" stunned Aleksandr Karelin, keeping the Russian from becoming wrestling's first four-time Olympic champion.

    Munich, 1972: The most prominent figure in U.S. wrestling, Dan Gable was known as much for his intensity and dedication as for his success. In the three years leading up to the Munich Games, Gable trained seven hours a day, every day. His reward: an Olympic gold in freestyle's 68kg (149.5 lbs) division that highlighted a 10-year run in which he won 299 matches and lost only six. Gable later coached the University of Iowa to 15 national championships, including an NCAA-record nine straight. He also coached U.S. teams at the 1984 and 2000 Olympics.

    Montreal, 1976: In 1972, American John Peterson finished runner-up to Levan Tediashvili of the Soviet Union in freestyle's 82kg (181 lbs) division, while his brother, Ben, won freestyle gold at 90kg (198.5 lbs). Four years later, Tediashvili wrestled at 90kg and out-pointed Ben in the final, while John claimed gold at 82kg, giving each Peterson brother one gold and one silver medal.

    Moscow, 1980: Twin brothers representing the hammer and sickle won freestyle wrestling's two lightest divisions at the Moscow Games. Anatoly Beloglazov, defeated his final four opponents in under five minutes, earned gold at 52kg (114.5 lbs). One day later, his twin brother, Sergei, was victorious at 57kg (125.5 lbs). Sergei, who out-pointed his six victims 58-3, missed the 1984 Los Angeles Games because of the Soviet boycott, but claimed a second Olympic gold in Seoul.

    Los Angeles, 1984: Entering the 1984 Olympics, the U.S. had never won an Olympic medal in Greco-Roman wrestling. Its super heavyweight entrant, Jeff Blatnick, seemed unlikely to change that. Then again, two years earlier, the New York native wasn't a good bet to even become an Olympian. After being diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease, Blatnick had his spleen and appendix removed in August 1982, and underwent radiation two months later. Ignoring concerns of doctors, Blatnick quickly resumed training, and ultimately made the U.S. team for Los Angeles. There, he capped his comeback by scoring twice in the final 64 seconds of the gold-medal match to defeat Sweden's Tomas Johansson. After falling to his knees and looking skyward, Blatnick dedicated the victory to his brother, Dave, who was killed in a motorcycle accident in 1977.

    Seoul, 1988: The final of freestyle wrestling's 74kg (163 lbs) division pit Oklahoma native Kenny Monday against defending world champion Adlan Varayev of the Soviet Union. In a back-and-forth contest, Monday scored with 17 seconds left to tie the match and force overtime. There, 40 seconds in, Monday lifted the Russian into the air and slammed him to the mat for a three-point takedown that made him the first black wrestling gold medalist in Olympic history.

    Barcelona, 1992: American Kevin Jackson and the Unified Team's Elmadi Jabrailov wrestled to a scoreless tie through regulation of the 82kg (181 lbs) freestyle final. Forty-six seconds into overtime, Jabrailov secured a deep leg attack, forcing the two wrestlers out of bounds. Jabrailov's coach, two-time Olympic champion Ivan Yarygin, argued that Jabrailov had control of Jackson and deserved a match-ending point. The referee decided otherwise, and Jackson eventually secured a double-leg takedown to win the gold. Jabrailov, distraught, had to be pushed onto the medal stand by Yarygin, but he refused to put the silver medal around his neck.

    Atlanta, 1996: In Atlanta, the United States led the wrestling medal standings with eight, including freestyle golds from Kendall Cross, Tom Brands and Kurt Angle. The Greco-Roman team contributed three silver medals, one courtesy of Matt Ghaffari, who fell short in an epic struggle with Russian heavyweight Aleksandr Karelin. With a 1-0 overtime victory, Karelin became the first wrestler to win three consecutive gold medals in the same weight class (130kg/286 lbs).

    Sydney, 2000: Russian Aleksandr Karelin entered Sydney universally regarded as the greatest Greco-Roman wrestler of all-time, and with a chance to become wrestling's first four-time Olympic champion. Undefeated in his 13-year international career, the chiseled and fearsome Karelin advanced to the 130kg (286 lbs) final, where he faced unassuming -- and by Karelin's standards, unaccomplished -- American Rulon Gardner. But with sound technique and tactics, the 29-year-old Gardner, who grew up on a dairy farm in Afton, Wyoming, took a 1-0 lead at the start of the second period and held on through overtime to deliver one of the biggest upsets in Olympic history. After winning bronze in Athens, Gardner left his shoes on the mat, signifying his retirement from wrestling.

    Athens, 2004: Women's freestyle wrestling makes its Olympic debut with competition in four weight classes. Japan, which entered the games with four 2003 World Champions on its roster, dominates as expected with Kaori Icho winning gold in the 63kg (138.5 lbs) division and Saori Yashida winning gold in the 55kg (121 lbs) division. Chiharu Icho won silver in the 48kg (105.5 lbs) division and Kyoko Hamaguchi, whose father Heigo was a famous professional wrestler in Japan, won bronze in the 72kg (158.5 lbs) division

  7. #7

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    Competition Format

    The official weigh-in, done in kilograms, occurs the day before that weight class is scheduled to complete. Unlike previous Olympics, each weight category will start and end on the same day in Beijing. During the weigh-in, athletes have 30 minutes to make weight. The wrestlers have the right, each in turn, to get on the scale as many times as they wish. Contestants are weighed with their singlets (uniform), but nothing else. For all competitions, there is only one weigh-in per category.

    Drawing of lots
    Also during the weigh-in, a drawing of lots takes place to determine the pairings. Assuming a wrestler makes weight, he or she draws a number after stepping off the scales. As in boxing, the draw is random. There are no seeds, so the two best wrestlers may meet in the first round.

    Format change
    Following the Athens Games, wrestling's international governing body, FILA, implemented numerous rules and competition changes. As opposed to the pool system used in past Olympics -- where each wrestler would begin the tournament by facing the two or three
    feature a direct elimination system, with repechage matches for those competitors who lose to one of the two finalists in his/her weight class.

    Each division will be based on 16-person brackets. If more than 16 wrestlers are competing in a particular weight class, preliminary matches will be held to get to 16. If fewer than 16 competitors are entered in the division, some wrestlers will receive first-round byes. The 16-person bracket will proceed from the round of 16 to quarterfinals to semifinals. The semifinal winners will then face in the gold medal-match.

    Repechage matches
    In a 16-person bracket, a finalist will have defeated three wrestlers (round of 16 {A}, quarterfinals {B}, semifinals {C}). C drops directly into one of the two bronze medal-matches, while A wrestles B to get into that match. (NOTE: It is possible that the wrestlers flip so the first-round loser of finalist Z wrestles the quarterfinal loser of finalist Y, but the number of repechage matches stays the same.) The repechages would be expanded if a finalist wrestled a match prior to the round of 16. The winners of the last two repechage matches each receive a bronze medal.

  8. #8

    Default Re: New To Wrestling? Learn the Basics of the Sport!

    Rules of Olympic Wrestling

    Greco-Roman vs. freestyle
    There are two styles of Olympic wrestling, though the rules for both are virtually identical. The chief difference is that in Greco-Roman, a wrestler may not attack his opponent below the waist, nor use his own legs to trip, lift or execute other holds. In freestyle, both the arms and legs are used to execute holds.

    Al Bello/Getty Images
    Freestyle wrestling allows for the use of legs.

    The match starts with the wrestlers on their feet, facing each other one meter (3 feet, 3 inches) apart. The main objective in wrestling is to pin the opponent, which is achieved by holding his or her shoulder blades to the mat for about a second. A pin, also known as a "fall," automatically ends the match. A wrestler who does not pin the opponent during a match must accumulate more points -- for performing techniques or moves within the rules -- to win the bout.

    Major changes since Athens
    • A weight class is started and completed in one day, similar to judo.
    • When a wrestler steps out of bounds, his opponent receives a point.
    • Each Greco-Roman period consists of one minute on feet, then two 30-second periods where each wrestler starts with a reverse lock position from the mat.

    Both wrestlers are required to always give an all-out effort. Wrestlers showing less than total effort are considered "passive." This can occur because a wrestler is cautious, prefers to counterattack and is waiting for the opponent to move, is trying to avoid risk and protect a lead, or is tired. One or both wrestlers can be considered passive. Passivity becomes obvious when a wrestler:

    • Does not attempt or execute any holds.
    • Is satisfied just to neutralize the opponent's efforts, blocking holds.
    • Gives the impression of not trying to initiate effective holds.
    • Intentionally "plays the edge," flees the mat, or pushes the opponent away to avoid wrestling.
    • Holds the opponent by one or both hands to prevent him or her from wrestling.
    • Repeatedly fakes head throws; slips off; falls to the mat; lies flat on his or her stomach; locks his or her legs around the opponent's leg.
    • In Greco-Roman wrestling, engages in combat with head thrust forward in order to prevent "body-to-body" contact.

    If the referee believes a wrestler is being passive, he can choose to warn him/her or he can award his opponent a point. In the past, when a referee decided that a wrestler was passive, he stopped the action and gave the active wrestler a choice of putting the opponent in the par terre position (on the ground) or allowing the opponent to remain standing.

    Illegal holds
    Punishing or brutal holds are illegal. They include choking; twisting of fingers, arms, toes or feet; striking the opponent with an elbow or knee; butting with the head; pulling hair; pinching; and/or biting. Certain holds on the head, arms or legs are prohibited because of extreme danger to the vertebrae and joints. These include headlocks without an arm included to bring an opponent's arm behind his or her back at an acute angle (hammerlock), a move that applies severe pressure to the neck or spine. The most dangerous hold is driving the opponent head first into the mat from standing position.

    In freestyle, a leg scissors with the feet crossed may not be applied to the head, neck or body, although it may be used on an opponent's arm or leg. In Greco-Roman, any use of the legs -- on offense or defense -- is illegal. The most common violations in Greco-Roman are defensive use of the legs to stop a lift or throws, and offensive use of the legs to help a lift or throw.
    A wrestler is not allowed to gain an advantage from use of an illegal hold. If the illegal hold helps him or her score, the whole action is erased and he or she is penalized. If the illegal hold fails to keep the opponent from scoring, the opponent gets the points he or she earned, plus a one-point penalty. There are no negative points assessed in wrestling, so any illegal actions performed by a competitor result in a point being awarded to the opponent.

  9. #9

    Default Re: New To Wrestling? Learn the Basics of the Sport!

    The Competition Surface - The RING or The MAT

    The circular wrestling area on an Olympic mat measures 9 meters (29 ? feet) in diameter. The mat has a foam core, about 1 ? to 2 ? inches thick.

    Protection area
    A border 1.5m (5 feet) wide, called the protection area, surrounds the circular wrestling area. Once in the protection area, a wrestler is considered out-of-bounds. Each time a wrestler in the standing position puts a foot on the protection area, his/her opponent will receive one technical point.

    Wrestling zone
    Inside the red band is the central wrestling area, measuring 7 meters (approximately 23 feet) in diameter. In the center of the mat there is a starting circle, 1m (3 feet, 3 inches) in diameter.

    Passivity zone
    Just inside the out-of-bounds line is a red band, 1 meter wide (3 feet, 3 inches), called the "passivity zone." A wrestler consistently backing into this zone is considered passive and will be penalized. If both wrestlers step into the zone with no action in progress, they are returned to the center for a fresh start.

    Diagonally opposite corners of the mat are marked red or blue. Before the match, the wrestler assigned to wear the red singlet reports to the red corner, and the wrestler wearing blue goes to the blue corner. During the match, each wrestler's coaches reside in the respective corners, which is where the wrestlers return in between periods. They exit their corners at the referee's command.

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